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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Gas-cooled electrical leads that connect the coil to the room-temperature outside world may also be located inside the magnet insulating vacuum vessel in the end region. (4) Cryogenic cooling is usually fed into the solenoid coil from the ends. Cooling should also include the intermediate temperature fluid (either liquid nitrogen at 80 K or helium gas at 50 to 80 K) used to cool the shields. (5) cryostat vacuum pumping ports will be located at the ends of the solenoid. (6) Room-temperature feed throughs for voltage taps, quench detection coils, temperature sensors, and pressure transducers will enter the magnet at the ends.

The large variation in electrical and thermal conductivity in directions parallel to and perpendicular to the c axis is a direct consequence of the conductivity of the CuO2 layers. Ratios of 100 and 17 for the electrical and thermal conductivities parallel to the a–b plane and perpendicular to it have been measured for YBCO (11). These values are even higher in Bi- and Tl-based systems, indicating strong anisotropy parallel to and perpendicular to the CuO2 layers. Anisotropy in response to magnetic fields and current density is a result of the large variation in the coherence length with direction.

For example, the compound yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) has been found to be superconducting up to 92 K (3). Additional important high-temperature superconductors include bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) (4), thallium barium calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) (5), and mercury barium calcium copper oxide (HBCCO) (6). HBCCO has the highest critical temperature, T c = 135 K (7,8). Table 1 presents the chemical formula and T c values of each of these compounds. The HTSCs can be subdivided into three classes: three-dimensional compounds based on BaBiO3 , layered copper-oxide compounds with hole conductivity (based on La2 CuO4 , YBa2 Cu3 O7 − , and compounds of Bi and Tl), and compounds based on Nd2 CuO4 with electron conductivity.

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03.Applied Superconductivity by John G. Webster (Editor)

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