By Michael Allaby
This dictionary of earth sciences has been revised and up-to-date and comprises over 6000 entries, together with planetary technology, distant sensing, information, and series stratigraphy, and mammoth updating in paleontology, mineralogy, and geophysics.
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
Various factors determine this angle, including particle size and angularity, the degree of interlocking between particles, and *porewater pressure. A typical angle of repose for coarse scree is 32–36°. angle of shearing resistance (internal angle of friction, angle of frictional resistance; φ) Approximate angle of repose for a anglesite a clean *sand; it reduces with moisture content and is zero for a sheared, saturated *clay. For rocks, a rough determination of the angle may be made by placing two small blocks of material together and inclining them until the top one slides.
Apodeme See exoskeleton. apogee The point in the orbit of the Moon (or any artiﬁcial satellite) that is most distant from the Earth. Compare perigee. Apollo 1. A *solar system asteroid (No. 81 years. Its orbit crosses that of earth. 2. The name of the *NASA manned lunar programme that ran from 1963 to 1972. Apex apomorph Evolutionarily advanced (‘derived’) character state. The long neck of the giraffe is apomorphic; the short neck of its ancestor is *plesiomorphic. APXS 33 apomorphic Applied to features possessed by a group of biological organisms that distinguish those organisms from others descended from the same ancestor.
APXS See alpha–proton–x-ray spectrometer. a aquamarine a aquamarine See beryl. aquiclude (aquifuge) A rock with very low values of hydraulic conductivity which, although it may be saturated with *groundwater, is almost impermeable with respect to groundwater ﬂow. Such rocks will act as boundaries to *aquifers and may form conﬁning strata. See permeability. aquic moisture regime The moisture balance of humid climates and soils, where annual precipitation exceeds the combined actual evaporation and transpiration, and where the soil moisture status is normally above *ﬁeld capacity.
A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby