By J.P. Daughton
Among 1880 and 1914, tens of millions of fellows and girls left France for far-off spiritual missions, pushed through the need to unfold the be aware of Jesus Christ, strive against devil, and convert the world's pagans to Catholicism. yet they weren't the one ones with eyes mounted on overseas seashores. simply because the Catholic missionary circulation reached its apex, the younger, staunchly secular 3rd Republic introduced the main competitive crusade of colonial growth in French historical past. Missionaries and republicans out of the country knew they'd a lot to realize from operating jointly, yet their starkly assorted motivations usually led them to view each other with resentment, mistrust, or even worry. In An Empire Divided, J.P. Daughton tells the tale of ways afflicted kin among Catholic missionaries and a number of republican critics formed colonial regulations, Catholic views, and family French politics within the tumultuous many years earlier than the 1st global warfare. With case stories on Indochina, Polynesia, and Madagascar, An Empire Divided--the first ebook to envision the position of spiritual missionaries in shaping French colonialism--challenges the long-held view that French colonizing and "civilizing" pursuits have been formed via a especially secular republican ideology equipped on Enlightenment beliefs. by way of exploring the reviews of Catholic missionaries, one of many biggest teams of French women and men operating in another country, Daughton argues that colonial guidelines have been usually wrought within the fires of non secular discord--discord that indigenous groups exploited in responding to colonial rule. After a long time of clash, Catholics and republicans within the empire finally buried a lot of their disagreements via embracing a inspiration of French civilization that awkwardly melded either Catholic and republican beliefs. yet their entente got here at a value, with each side compromising long-held and much-cherished traditions for the good thing about constructing and conserving authority. targeting the much-neglected intersection of politics, faith, and imperialism, Daughton deals a brand new figuring out of either the character of French tradition and politics on the fin de siecle, in addition to the ability of the colonial event to reshape European's such a lot profound ideals.
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Extra resources for An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880-1914
Ofﬁcials and politicians, therefore, often responded to the outcry against the missions by demanding better funding for state-run schools and health care programs—two ﬁelds missionaries traditionally dominated. Republicans took steps not to outlaw missionaries but to minimize the empire’s reliance on them by creating more ofﬁcial or overtly republican programs to provide services alongside the missions. In this way, the controversy over Catholic missionaries’ presence in the empire actually precipitated republicans’ commitment to civilize on their own secular terms.
These cases, therefore, offer the chance to see just how fragmented and diverse republican opinion about colonization and civilization was. They also provide insight into the various 24 They Shall Cast out Devils strategies that different missions used in deﬂecting criticism and proving their value to the colonial effort. The ﬁnal part of the book shifts from the colonies back to France to navigate how religious tensions at home, coupled with the divisive experiences in the colonies, changed the ways missionaries represented their work to their supporters.
These cases allow the opportunity to explore the varieties of contexts with a level of detail that would be impossible in a general study. Indochina, Polynesia, and Madagascar are in many ways obvious choices, as they represent the three possessions with the longest and richest traditions of Catholic evangelizing by French missionary societies. In the seventeenth century, Indochina was the destination of missionaries from the Société des missions étrangères de Paris, France’s oldest and most respected missionary organization.
An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880-1914 by J.P. Daughton