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6: An early version of OFDM tive is given in References [6] and [7]. 6). Unlike the non-bandlimited OFDM, each carrier must carry Staggered (or Offset) QAM, that is, the input to the I and Q modulators must be offset by half a symbol period. Furthermore, adjacent carriers must be offset oppositely. It is interesting to note that Staggered QAM is identical to Vestigial Sideband (VSB) modulation. The low-pass filters are such that the combination of transmit and receive filters, is Nyquist, with the roll-off factor assumed to be less than 1.

Otherwise, it is necessary to transmit real quantities. This can be accomplished by first appending the complex conjugate to the original input block. A 2N-point inverse FFT now yields 2N real numbers to be transmitted per block, which is equivalent to N complex numbers. The most significant advantage of this DMT approach is the efficiency of the FFT algorithm. An N -point FFT requires only on the order of NlogN multiplications, rather than as in a straightforward computation. The efficiency is particularly good when N is a power of 2, although that is not generally necessary.

1. M-ary ASK Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) carry information in amplitude. In a given set of the signal is The 2-ASK also known as BPSK is a famous modulation technique which is being widely used. If E is the signal energy per symbol, then the constellation points reside at and 2. 2. 8: Constellation diagram 31 Chapter 2. System Architecture 32 M-ary PSK shifts the phase for different constellations given a constant amplitude. There are M possible signals which has phases, each signal is placed on a circle and represented as Notice that 2-PSK is again BPSK.

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an introduction to alfren waves by Cross


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