By Edward B. Clark, W.E. Amend
This advisor describes a whole technique for carrying out box hardness trying out to estimate the yield energy of pipeline steels. the method is non-destructive so it's compatible for in-situ checking out on working pipelines, at pipe garage amenities, or numerous different destinations. It additionally makes it possible for technique diversifications which are compatible for program in several events and prerequisites which may be encountered on a pipeline right-of-way and in different places. box hardness checking out isn't a 'one dimension matches all' technique the place a unmarried hardness trying out technique is acceptable for software in all events that may be encountered
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Additional resources for Applications guide for determining the yield strength of in-service pipe by hardness evaluation : final report
Ball indenters, in particular, can deform with use often resulting in calibration problems and erroneous data. Likewise, diamond indenters that have cracked or spalled from use should be replaced. c) Pipe Diameter As pipe diameters increase, it becomes typically less difficult for the test technician to properly conduct field hardness testing. Conversely, hardness testing on smaller diameter pipe increases the testing difficulty. For hardness testing procedure qualification purposes, the following two nominal pipe diameter (D) ranges will be used to establish the procedure qualification range as follows: • • D ≥ 10 inch D ≤ 8 inch Hardness testing procedures qualified for applications on 8 inch diameter or less pipe are considered applicable to all greater pipe diameters.
For welded pipe manufactured from plate or coiled skelp produced in 1960 or later, the steelmaking process may have included controlled rolling methods thereby increasing the chance of a systematic strength (and hardness) variation. In such cases, initial hardness testing should be done near the center of the length and an end to determine if one area is consistently lower. If so, continue testing at that location; otherwise either area is acceptable. Additional details concerning pipe location variations are contained in Appendix D.
Since this definition could apply to field hardness testing, activities described in this Guide must also comply with the provisions of these rules. 4 Personnel Safety Considerations and Requirements Since hardness testing will often be conducted within excavations of underground pipelines, normal company field safety criterion for working in such conditions should apply. The results of the pre-assessment step of the process should also be considered. Any pipe-related history that would indicate internal corrosion or pipe wall defects may exist should be cause for additional precautionary measures especially when preparing pipe surfaces for hardness testing.
Applications guide for determining the yield strength of in-service pipe by hardness evaluation : final report by Edward B. Clark, W.E. Amend